- Diabetes is a condition where the blood sugar is elevated.
- The pancreas makes insulin which helps decrease our blood sugar levels.
- Diabetes results from too little insulin or an inability of the body to use insulin effectively.
- Diabetes can lead to heart disease, kidney damage, blindness. and amputations
- Diabetes is the strongest risk factor for heart disease.
- The incidence of diabetes has steadily increased, this is thought to be secondary to the increased incidence of obesity.
- 9% of the American population has diabetes. Reference NIH
What are the symptoms of diabetes?
- Excessive thirst
- Excessive urination.
What causes diabetes
- No one knows what cause type I diabetes, it is thought to follow a virus that targets the pancreas.
Different types of diabetes
- Type 1 juvenile diabetes 5% of diabetic cases
- Type II adult onset 95% of diabetic cases
- Gestational diabetes occurs in 10% of pregnancies.
Risk factors for diabetes
- Family history
- Age over 45
- High blood pressure
- Low physical activity
- History of depression
Obesity and Diabetes
- Almost 90% of people with type 2 diabetes are overweight.
- The additional weight places strain on the pancreas and its ability to keep up with insulin.
Diabetes and weight loss
- Diabetes Prevention Program, sponsored y the NIH, has proven that modest weight reduction and a 30-minute exercise routine five days a week can reduce the development of type 2 diabetes over three years by more than 50 percent. Reference -Joslin Health Center
Diabetes and cardiovascular disease
- “There is a clear-cut relationship between diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
- People with diabetes were more likely to develop heart disease. Reference Framingham Heart Study.
- Cardiovascular disease is the most frequent cause of death in people with diabetes.
Diet Program can help reduce risk of cardiovascular disease
- “Participants in the Why WAIT (Weight Achievement and Intensive Management) program lost substantial amounts of weight, and even those who maintained relatively little loss of weight after five years demonstrated reduced risks of cardiovascular disease.”
- “The study followed 129 Why WAIT participants with an average body-mass index (BMI) of 38 (a BMI higher than 30 is considered obese). Participants showed an average loss of body weight of 9.7% (24 pounds) at the completion of the initial 12-week intervention, and maintained an average loss of 6.4% (16 pounds) at five years.”
- Prescriptions for diabetic medications increased significantly among lower-weight-loss participants, but either did not change or dropped in the higher-weight-loss group at five years.
- Lower-weight-loss group maintained better LDL (bad cholesterol) and HDL (good cholesterol) levels over five years, and their average blood pressure remained unchanged during that time.
The Why Wait Program is offered at the Joslin Center in Boston, MA
The Why Wait Program includes,
- “adjustments to diabetes medications to enhance weight reduction.
- a structured diet with regular food and meal replacements, following Joslin Nutrition Guidelines
- weekly learning sessions
- individualized exercise plan that gradually increases from 20 to 30 minutes/day (3 to 4 times/week) to 45 to 60 minutes/day (6 times/week)”
- “the plan is designed to maintain muscle mass during weight loss so most of the weight loss is from the fat mass, and people will retain high energy expenditure for long-term,”
- “In studies comparing Why WAIT with two common types of surgery, it was found that patients in the intervention program reported better or equal improvement in quality of life compared with those who underwent surgery”.